I-World Bank nesexwayiso kwiNingizimu Afrika ngobugebengu

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    EZOMNOTHO: JABULANI SIKHAKHANE

    IBHANGE loMhlaba, iWorld Bank, lixwayisa ngokuthi ukwanda kobugebengu eNingizimu Afrika ngenye yezimbambezela zokukhula komnotho. Leli bhange leneke lokhu embikweni walo obuyekeza isimo somnotho wakuleli, okhishwa njalo ngonyaka.

    Lo mbiko ulinganisa ukuthi izindleko ezidalwa ngqo yizigameko zobugebengu nezokulwa nabo, cishe zidla u-10% womkhiqizo womnotho (ngokwesikalo seGDP). Lezi zindleko zixube ezokuzivikela, umshwalense nokulahlekelwa yimpahla kwezakhamizi nosomabhizinisi. 

    Enye ingxenye yezindleko ngeyokulahlekelwa amathuba. Singalinganisa lapha ngemboni yezokuvakasha. Ukwanda kobugebengu obugcina ngokushicilelwa ngabezindaba kwamanye amazwe, kungenza izivakashi zesabe ukuza kuleli. Kuzokhumbuleka ukuthi le mboni ithathwa njengenamathuba amaningi okudala imisebenzi, ikakhulukazi engaqasha intsha nabangenawo amakhono atheni omsebenzi. Uma osomabhizinisi bengasebenzisa imali abathenga ngayo izinto zokuzivikela nomshwalense, ukuyitshala ekwandisweni komkhiqizo wabo noma ukuvula izizinda ezintsha, izinga lokukhula komnotho weNingizimu Afrika lingenyuka cishe ngo-1% ngonyaka.

    I-World Bank ithi ubugebengu benyusa izindleko zosomabhizinisi, futhi benza kubenzima ukuvulwa kwamasha. Amabhizinisi asafufusa namancane, yiwo athwele kanzima ngobugebengu.

    Zimbili izizathu zalokhu; esokuqala, wukuthi lolu hlobo lwamabhizinisi kalunawo amandla okutshala imali emizamweni yokuvikela izizinda zawo nezindleko zomshwalense. Esesibili, la mabhizinisi avame ukuba nezizinda ezindaweni lapho izinga lobugebengu liphezulu, njengasemalokishini nasemijondolo. Isizathu salokhu wukuthi abanikazi bawo basuke befuna ukusondelana namakhasi-mende abo.

    I-World Bank ibika ukuthi ubugebengu kuleli sebungene kwelinye izinga njengoba sekwande nokuntshontshwa kwengqalasizinda yezwe, njengezintambo zethusi (copper). Lokhu kukhinyabeza umnotho wezwe nokutholakala kwezinsiza zomphakathi. Sikhuluma nje, inkampani yakwaTransnet isikhubazekile ekuthutheni amalahle esuka ezimayini eMpumalanga, eyiswa echwebeni laseRichards Bay, ngenxa yokwebiwa kwethusi elineqhaza ekusebenzeni kolayini bezitimela.

    Nezakhamizi zithwele nzima ngobugebengu. Okokuqala, isidingo sokuthenga umshwalense noma ukuqasha izinkampani zonogada kwehlisa imali izakhamizi ezingayibeka enqolobaneni noma ziyisebenzisele ezinye izindleko zempilo. Okwesibili, abantu abahlala emalokishini, emijondolo nasezindaweni zasemakhaya, babhekene nobugebengu kodwa kabanawo amandla atheni okuqasha onogada nokuthenga umshwalense. 

    Omunye umthelela wokwanda kobugebengu, ngowokuphoqeka kukahulumeni ukwandisa isabelomali samaphoyisa nezokuvikeleka. Sikhuluma nje sekuneziqubu eziningi uMengameli Cyril Ramaphosa ekhipha amasosha ezinkanjini ukuba ayolekelela amaphoyisa ekulweni nezenzo zobugebengu. Kulezi zinyathelo, esakamuva kube ngesokusebenzisa amasosha ukulwa nabavukuzi abangekho emthethweni ezimayini. Lokhu kudinga ukuba uhulumeni ukhokhele uMnyango wezokuVikela imali yezindleko zalo msebenzi.

    I-World Bank ithi ukuze elakuleli liphumelele empini yalo nobugebengu, kumele lehlise inzuzo etholwa yizigebengu. Ezinye izinyathelo ngezokwenyuswa kwezinga lokuphenya nokushushiswa kwamacala obugebengu. 

    Leli bhange libika ukuthi ubufakazi obuvela kwamanye amazwe, bukhomba ukuthi ukuboshwa kwezigebengu kunegalelo elikhulu ekwehliseni izinga lobugebengu. Ngenxa yokungabi namaphoyisa amaningi anekhono nokushoda kwemali (ohlangothini lukahulumeni), iWorld Bank icebisa iNingizimu Afrika ngokuthi kumele ikhethe ngobunyoninco izinyathelo ezingaba negalelo elikhulu empini nobugebengu. Lenza umzekelo ngokwanda kokubulawa kwabantu  – osekusezingeni eliphezulu kakhulu emazweni amaningi – elithi kunegalelo elikhulu ekunyuseni ingebhe ezakhamizini futhi kuphazamisa ukusebenza komnotho. 

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